mental disorders


Mental illness can begin at any age, from childhood through later adult years, but most cases begin earlier in life. In the eastern Mediterranean region, it was unipolar major depression (12%) and schizophrenia (7%), and in Africa it was unipolar major depression (7%) and bipolar disorder (5%). [108], Lifestyle strategies, including dietary changes, exercise and quit smoking may be of benefit.
Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder. World War II saw the development in the U.S. of a new psychiatric manual for categorizing mental disorders, which along with existing systems for collecting census and hospital statistics led to the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). You may need to go to a psychiatric hospital. Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, and the term psychiatry was coined (1808), though medical superintendents were still known as alienists. Some neurologists argue that classification will only be reliable and valid when based on neurobiological features rather than clinical interview, while others suggest that the differing ideological and practical perspectives need to be better integrated.

All disorders can have a varied course. [121] Rates varied by region. There are several main types. [5][6] Such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional. The meticulous study, observation, and inquiry that characterize the discipline of psychopathology are, in turn, the basis for the practice of psychiatry (i.e., the science and practice of diagnosing and treating mental disorders as well as dealing with their prevention). Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions. [91] In addition, comorbidity is very common in psychiatric diagnosis, where the same person meets the criteria for more than one disorder. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. [204][205], The risk of anthropomorphism is often raised with regard to such comparisons, and assessment of non-human animals cannot incorporate evidence from linguistic communication. Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help groups for mental health and supported housing or supported employment (including social firms). A 2011 UK Department of Health report on the economic case for mental health promotion and mental illness prevention found that "many interventions are outstandingly good value for money, low in cost and often become self-financing over time, saving public expenditure". The definition and classification of mental disorders are key issues for researchers as well as service providers and those who may be diagnosed. Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. A narrow definition of mental illness would insist upon the presence of organic disease of the brain, either structural or biochemical. But that term has vanished from medicine, although not from the way we speak. Neurological diseases (see neurology) with behavioral manifestations are treated in nervous system disease. Disorders of sexual functioning and behaviour are treated in sexual behaviour, human. That is the bad news. Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. MedlinePlus also links to health information from non-government Web sites.
Biological psychiatry follows a biomedical model where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits likely caused by developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genetics and experience. [26][27], The DSM and ICD approach remains under attack both because of the implied causality model[28] and because some researchers believe it better to aim at underlying brain differences which can precede symptoms by many years. This is partly because mental states or behaviour that are viewed as abnormal in one culture may be regarded as normal or acceptable in another, and in any case it is difficult to draw a line clearly demarcating healthy from abnormal mental functioning. The effects of mental illness can be temporary or long lasting. Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD.[114].

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